Network Management Protocols – SNMP, TL-1, TL-2, and TL-3

Network administrators can manage a network's separate components inside a larger network management framework using a network management system (NMS). NMS can keep track of a network's hardware and software components. The main advantage of NMS is that it enables users to oversee or manage all aspects of their business operations from a single computer.   I...


A long-standing problem of software engineering is the need to develop an organized way to deal with exceptions, situations that must be handled gracefully but that are not conceptually part of the normal operation of the program.

Of course it is possible to program exception handling without using special linguistic features. For example, all functions could return an extra result that indicates whether they succeeded or failed, functions could ta...